The traveling of lingerie from ‘cotte’ to trendy intimatewear
The existence of lingerie is as old as the existence of women who wear it. In the middle ages things were easygoing as women wore respective corset-like number of things from which only one can be chosen like the cotte, the bliaunt and the surcot, which move on without apparent effort over their dresses and hold the breasts firmly. Wearing underwear/corsets has been practiced since the ancient civilization of Egypt and Greece, where women wore corsets to help their breasts. Bras have been worn in all ages to support women’s breasts and give them a fashionable look.
18th Century: It is believed that the history of underwear started in the 18th century. The padded silhouette with a flat stomach, slim waist and cone-shaped bust was a style. The corset, a critical part of any woman’s costume at that time, gave the body a typical shape, squeezing the internal organs and making them feel comfortable. Extreme usage of satin, silk and damask fancified with embroidery, ribbons and laces gave the effect of artistry.
19th Century: Women wore corsets, crinolines and bustles. The S-shaped silhouette trend started at that time. Women wore underwear like knickers, corset, camisole and waist slip.
20th Century: Lingerie turned out to be less sophisticated and more practical. Corsets were substituted by a more flexible girdle progressed bra. Pastel colours for lingerie came into existence. In 1910 boyish silhouette became a trend. The introductory brassiere to have a patent, which was accepted largely, was a bra invented by a young New York socialite named Mary Phelps Jacob in 1910. In the 1930s femininity became a fashion trend. A woman was covered by the one-piece garments known as corsets including a curved and bust-emphasizing brassiere and girdle with garters. But one-piece corsets were accepted largely and panties were scaled down in size and ultimately gained the shape of bikini briefs.
21st century-the era of intimacy-intimatewear: In this era the fashion is pushing women to exhibit the underwear as outerwear which is worn for the sensible pleasure of a partner. Lingerie is considered as the second skin by a heap of women. In the present era, women have more selections than ever in terms of style, design, fabrics etc. Since a lot of centuries fashion in connection to lingerie styles was toggling among the effeminate and masculine, painful and practical. In the recent time, lingerie is the most attractive, luxurious and effeminate costume that is worn intimately and valued for it is practicality and comfort.
Worldwide Market Growth Forecast of Lingerie
Today, the main concern in regards to merchandising the lingerie productions is the fight for share amid global brands and retailers’ local labels worldwide. It is also when it comes to consumers’ choice and acceptance of brand. With it is matchless combining of fashion and function, lingerie is a product category that crosses the fine line amidst requisite and luxury. Besides these features, it has increased into when it comes to a US$30 billion-a-year industry and placed itself for further growth over the next five years.
To know the international lingerie market, it is necessary to check out not only the contest amongst brands, but also the distinguished bra-wars taking place among brands and local retail labels. The leading player amid lingerie brands international is United States-based manufacturer Sara Lee, which has a major market part in it is home country as well as the European market. After Sara Lee there subsist companies like Warnaco, Fruit of the Loom, VF and Maidenform, in Europe Triumph also possess a major market share. The more comfy La Perla, meanwhile, is atop the high end of the world lingerie market.
In the retail sector, US chain Victoria’s Secret, the UK’s Knickerbox and northern European retailer Hunkemoller provide to the specialist market, but the big amount of lingerie is swapped by costume merchants who sells goods at retail like Marks & Spencer and hypermarkets like Wal-Mart and Carrefour. Though, the tendency is to be robust on briefs than bras, and repeatedly trade these items in multiple packs. While the leading merchants who sells goods at retail and brands keep up to propel the market, the nature of singularity demands that there is likewise a push of smaller, more up market labels that offer to a few niche.
Of the total world lingerie market, amounted to US$29.5 billion every year in 2003, bras calculated to 56 per cent of total sales, while briefs and the body wear/daywear/shape wear category add 32 per cent and 12 per cent in that order. Of in regards to 6.4 billion bras and briefs were procured international in 2003. The report shows that the intermediate woman buys two bras and five pairs of briefs per year. Lingerie sales in the formulated world are observed to be basic fashion-driven, with the intermediate woman having six bras and eight pairs of briefs in her wardrobe – more than she normally requires.
The buying of these merchandise is commonly determined by style factors, like as what styles (g-string, padded bra) look best underneath sure types of clothing, or what colors appear best. In the past, this picture has not been right for constructing countries where lingerie is purchased more out of need than desire. Though, population growth, unstable demographics and the aspect of buyers with more disposable income is altering purchasing habits in these regions, and the lingerie market is projected to gain vantage from this opportunity.
According to a exploration report, the international lingerie market was calculated to be $29.15-billion (U.S.) in 2004 and is projected to increase (at the rate of in regards to 9 per cent) to $31.6-billion in 2012. And the product category that will have the quickest growth is “bodywear, daywear and shapewear.”
Despite this noteworthy growth, demand for lingerie in the invented world has been observed to be rising at regarding five per cent (based on low population growth, ageing demographics and product saturation), while that of the rest of the world is projected to increase by almost 20 per cent.
While this turns out to be a reasonably steady 7 per cent raise in world volume to 6.8 billion units, it also amounts to massive growth in devising nations. This will go together by a remarkable push towards offshore manufacturing in countries like China and India, as continuing enhancement in engineering and communications make such number of things from which only one can be chosen far more cost effective than the domestic alternative. Markets that are expected to create in the future include the Indian sub-continent, China and Southeast Asia. India and China are projected to increase their global market share by when it comes to US$100 million each, while Southeast Asia, already a leading market for lingerie, will increase by US$350 million in value.
Given that price points in these sub-regions are somewhat low; this expected growth shows an probability in huge amount for lingerie companies. Products which shape the body and offer smooth curves are observed as a key growth sector for baby boomer lingerie buyers. New and innovative fabrics like Lycra and microfibers will keep on featuring a lot in this segment.
Prices to keep steady
With downward price special importance and significance at a merchandising level compensating any attempts at increasing manufacturers’ costs, prices are not prevised to have any remarkable affect on lingerie market growth in the devised world till 2010. Though, value growth in the fabricating world is more perplexed to estimate, due to the spacious merchandising in the gray or black markets and, hence, not at normal selling prices.
Nonetheless, Sara Lee is anticipated to keep on it is dominance of the formulated world market and fabricate sizable inroads into other markets over the next five years – even in the challenge of financial difficultnesses faced by challengers such as Warnaco and Maidenform. Along with it the low profile and consequently low debt European companies like Triumph and Wolford will keep surviving. It is understandable that high-volume growth for lingerie’s leasing players will come from emergent markets, while, in a sector where discrimination is important, beneficial business will also be held by niche marketers. Fortunately for all matter, lingerie is pushed by female consumers’ dedication to brand, fit and comfort, making it as one of the more financially strong segment in the apparel market.
China exported 4.2 billion pieces of women’s undergarments in 2004, a 30 percent raise from 2003. In China, Shantou is one of the leading manufacturing hubs for women’s undergarments with well-set up and good factory management systems, supplying prompt service and effective supply chain system. This harbor city in Guangdong province exported women’s underwear worth $650 million in 2004, accounting to be the third of China’s outbound shipments of the product. Shantou possesses more than 1,500 suppliers, regarding 150 of who export directly. Shantou’s affiliated towns of Gurao, Xiashan, Chendian and Liangying are the leading manufacturing areas. Gurao, the greatest center, has more than 440 undergarment makers. Annual sales reach $260 million, including 564 million brassieres and 180 million pairs of underpants. Shantou is famous all over China as a major producer of knitted underwear. Xiashan and Chendian each develop more than $100 million worth of women’s undergarments per year.
Suppliers in Shantou vary from little companies with 50 laborers to big makers with 1,500 employees. Though, little and midsize suppliers constitute the major companies. Many suppliers possess vertically integrated production with in-house fabric knitting, dyeing, finishing and printing, and garment sewing, embroidery and packing capability. The city’s bra and panty suppliers target on midrange models, but high-end designs are also made by them. Approximately 90 per cent of output is for OEM orders.
Seamless bras and panties are trendy designs which are more preferable now a days. Hanzina Underwear Co. Ltd, a leading provider of such products, has invested a huge amount in 20 Santoni circular knitting machines from Italy, two warp knitting systems and 350 sewing machines. The company makes 200,000 pieces per month. The use of lace and embroidered fabrics is also well-liked amongst Shantou suppliers. Chengtai Underwear Knitting Factory makes bra and panty sets with lace trimmings, embroidery or prints.
The midsize company makes undergarments for Wal-Mart and donna l’oren. Hongjie Underwear Industrial Co. is also a leading producer with 1,500 laborers and to a complete degree integrated production that covers fabric knitting and sewing. The company provides imagination bras and panties in crocheted fabrics, intricate prints and embroidery. The company likewise gives rise to items like push-up and convertible brassieres.
Many companies are making attempts to decrease their lead and deliverance times. Shantou’s port, one of the 20 leading harbors in China, transports cargo to a lot of countries and regions. This facilitates suppliers to provide commodious shipping to alien buyers and supports in continuance in transportation at for less rates.
The lingerie market in India is still in it is infant stage and, until in recent times, the availability of high quality intimate apparel was fixed to irregular or grey imports sold underneath the counter. Because of the fixed productions and lack of sufficient specialized and coordinated retail atmosphere, the fashion realization and quality consciousness of the Indian buyer for intimate apparel is yet to be realized.
India is also one of the most scattered selling markets in the world. The products, so far, have been primarily marketed as a commodity and are price and margin oriented. Till today huge quantities of bras are sold to end users by male salespersons in mom-and-pop shops. Majorities of the stores do not even provide a trial room.
As a consequence, big buyer base are not sure of the functional features of a bra or even their own sizes. When Gokaldas Intimatewear begun constructing Enamor, their basi intention was good fit. Across India Enamor surveyed and measured 4,000 women. They noticed that 80 per cent of Indian women wore a uncomfortable fitting underwear. In India, bras were made only in B and C cup sizes, altho Enamor’s exploration found that most Indian women required A or D cup sizes.
In India Triumph, Lovable Lingerie, Enamor, VIP, Juliet, Amul etc are major players in lingerie market. Today 70 per cent of the lingerie market of India is unorganised. But that may be substituted with the increase in the number of malls and quality-conscious consumers. For example, Lovable’s growth of 20 per cent last year was sustained by new marketing space.
The joint market contribution of the leading five merchants who sells goods at retail in India totals less than two per cent. Though, Lingerie sales have increased by 12 per cent in the past five years because of a new consciousness of intimatewear. Women’s innerwear industry in India is worth Rs. 2,000 crore and is growing at an intermediate rate of 12 per cent.
Turkey and Bangladesh have already observed the potential and are acutely encouraging it is innerwear industry. Many Asian countries are defeating India in the US, the world’s greatest costume importer. According to the US office of Textiles and Apparel, in 2002 the country imported 198,094,426 dozen pieces of cotton underwear. India’s contribution in this was a paltry 2.36 per cent. In bras using manmade material, the US imported 37,676,800 dozen pieces. While China constituted 32 per cent of these, Indonesia had 10.5 per cent. Even Bangladesh had 1 per cent. However, India exported a meager 0.65 per cent. Though, there is a great potential to be taped if neared in an coordinated manner with a proper set up.
Womenswear: the most profitable segment
The Rs.28,375-crore womenswear apparel segment covers 32.1 percent share of the Indian apparel market in value terms. In volume terms, market part of womenswear is one percent more outstanding than that of menswear but in value terms it is part is five percent less than that of menswear due to branded segment in womenswear was practically non-existent till a few years back. At present, it is the most profitable segment for investment. During 2005, volumes increased by 5.5 percent while value appreciation was as high as 15 percent.
Women’s trousers and skirts category observed a most eminent growth for the duration of 2005, volumes growing nine percent and value appreciating more than 23 percent over 2004 levels. Western wear like suits and blazers and Lingerie are the two other categories where progression was excellent, volume and value growth being 10 and 21 percent respectively in the Western wear and 6.8 and 18.1 percent in lingerie.
In early days the Indian women largely trusted alien merchandise or directed their friendly corner tailors to stitch form-fitting bodice, which were worn beneath dresses. But now the scenario is different. The firstborn trendy motion for both men and women was seen when Associated Apparels Pvt Ltd, makers of Liberty shirts, introduced the world famous Maiden Form bras, Jockey men’s underwear and Jantzen swimwear in 1962 in India.
It was a lanky amount of time for Liberty shirts with complexity in imports and the export market initiation, so the late Bhawandas Wadhwani neared the lingerie business with technical knowhow from the USA. The brands got an accomplishment of optimal level with their styles and quality. But due to the government’s limitations for alien brands, Wadhwani discontinued the overseas tie-up and changed the names to Libertina for lingerie and Liberty for men’s underwear in the late 70s. From 80s to 90s the company focalized on undergarments. Even today Libertina and Liberty are still one of the major players in the lingerie market.
With the outstanding triumph of Libertina and Liberty, other Indian companies likewise shifted into the lingerie markets. In the 70s Peter Pan from Dawn Mills entered in the market with lingerie styles of the West. The brand was frequent amidst the Indian women, but two decades later it vanished from the market.
In 1971, VIP entered the men’s underwear market with a big-bang and became the most talked regarding brand due to it is advertising featuring model Dalip Tahil. Since then VIP is a leading player in the men’s and women’s underwear market. VIP launched Petals, a Lycra moulded cup bra with motifs, which was accepted well at that time, but was later discontinued. But introducing Loveable in 1996 was a huge success as they brought in a alien brand, but it was made in India. Lovable was followed by Feelings, VIP’s domestic merchandise and Daisy Dee another alien brand. The very ultra Vanity Fair was introduced in 2004 and lastly a Korean Brand Try for men and women in 2004. VIP’s fashionable new men’s innerwear called Frenchie X was aimed to meet the challenges thrown by the alien brands.
Another leading brand in the lingerie market is Rupa & Co traditionalisti in 1985. Its assortment of men’s, women’s and children’s underwear put together makes it India’s greatest innerwear manufacturer and seller. Besides these two brands there are other labels developed by them. Amul, Lux Cozi, Dollar are a great deal of of the brands catering to a peculiar segment of the men’s underwear market, while the lingerie segment has it is own local offerings like Neva, Bodycare, Softy, Lady Care, Little Lacy, Red Rose, Sonari, Feather Line and galore more.
In the 90s Jockey re-entered the Indian market followed by Calida and Liberti Blu. Then the very high fashion Gossard existed for a fixed time. In the 21st century, Enamor, another alien brand entered the Indian market through Gokaldas Exports and the very chic French brand Aubade started it is only outlet in Mumbai. La Senza is the next alien brand that is set to enter the market while Hanes has already set with a very unconventional ad effort aimed to ease for the Indian male.
One of the leading alien players in the Indian lingerie market is Triumph. They have a presence in 150 countries around the world and a turnover of US $2 billion with a production of over 200 million units annually, developing 6000 new fashion styles per year designed by 200 designers in 11 countries. Triumph started it is operation in India in six metros, and is now disseminate in 45 cities. As far as lingerie is concerned, India is still in it is introductory stage. India has to wait to become a matured market as equated to the other Asian markets like Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, China and Vietnam. In the last three years there has been a great growth in the business but the retailing of lingerie and distribution channels are limited. Triumph markets through retailers, MBOs, and two franchisees in Mumbai and Kolkata, and further more they are going to increase in the near future. From 300 outlets in India they target to cross 1,000 outlets in three-five years. With all raw materials imported from Europe, Triumph is developed in Chennai and has gained a 50 per cent raise in sales since it came into the country. Though, Triumph is the only internationally managed brand, it likewise aims to satisfy Indian buyers and has the capability to source intellectual fabrics not offered in India. Triumph was the initial to introduce moisturising fabrics with Aloe Vera and the one-piece bra which is developed by one piece of fabric. The sizes and styles are very peculiar to Indian consumers. Triumph which started out production in India in 1998 has been exporting to the USA before it came into the local market. With 80 per cent exports and 20 per cent local sales in India, Triumph adds new productions and conceptions for 5-10 styles each year.
Lately, well-known international lingerie brands – Aubade – from the fashion capital of France has entered in Indian market.
While the global lingerie outlook is as stimulating and bright as the outerwear one, India’s growth in the former segment may be called just regarding negligible. Body and beach fashion shows are showcased twice a year around the world showing the latest trends in innerwear fashion. New underwear fabrics with ‘anti’ treatment like anti-stress, anti-smog, anti-static, anti-allergic, anti- bacterial, anti-moisture and anti-odour pamper the body. Top European productions like Bruno Banani, Excellent, Schneider, Louis Feraud, Calvin Klein, Gianfranco Ferre, DKNY, La Perla, Gossard, and Schiesser are numerous of the brands that set their inspiration to the extreme test. Thanks to the new outerwear performance made by designers around the world and India, lingerie is seemed with renewed fascination in India too.
It may be shocking that there are 1000 Indian brands in the market but only 200 are nationally active. The others cater to markets in the vicinity of their production. Many of these brands have so far continued the advent of MNC labels for the last decade and will have to proceed to do so.
The Indian lingerie Industry is growing because of the increasing domestic demand coupled with big export potential. It will soon receive an upfront position. From a cottage industry it may be transformed into a growing trade. Indian brands have experienced that they have to be more quality conscious and work harder in branding, promotion, packaging and innovation. Only the mindset to make world class lingerie is lacking. Smaller countries like Sri Lanka, Turkey and Bangladesh are major manufacturers in this segment. Indian companies have recognized the signification of innerwear for men and women and the contest is just boiling as new and more players arrive to offer Indians that much required fashionable lift.
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